Master and Ph.D., Department of Electric Engineering, National Taiwan University (1989,09-1994,01)
Bachelor, Department of Mechanic Engineering, National Taiwan University (1985-1989)
Adjunct Professor, Institute of Optoelectronic Sciences, National Taiwan Ocean University (2006,8 - present)
Associate Director, Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica (2012 - present)
Adjunct Professor, Institute of Biophotonics Engineering, National Yang Ming University, Taiwan (2012 - )
Adjunct Professor, Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan (2015,8 - present)
Acting Executive Officer, Thematic Center for Mechanics and Engineering Science, Academia Sinica (2009,7 - 2015,12)
Research Fellow, Academia Sinica (2009,2-)
Associate Research Fellow, Academia Sinica (2004-2008)
Assistant Research Fellow, Academia Sinica (2000-2004)
Postdoctoral Fellowship, Academia Sinica (1996,1998)
Research Fields (1) Near-Field Optics, Nano-Photonics and Related Techniques (2) Applications of Nanostructures in Biosensing, Bioimaging and Green-Energy Devices.
Recent Research Topics： (1) Nano-Optical Microscopy and Lithography： Our group is devoted to developing super-resolution optical techniques by using near-field optics. We developed various kinds of near-field microscopes to study different important thin-film devices, such as organic/inorganic thin films for light emitting devices, metallic/transparent nanostructures for biosensing and lithography, and dielectric/plasmonic structures for integrated optics. All these near-field measurements were done by the home-build systems. We have several patents for the nano-probe fabrication and system (US/TW patents). More than 30 papers relate to the near-field optical measurement have published. We also applied the concept of super-resolution optics for photomask nanolithography. This technology is more suitable for mass-production and commercial use. We invented near-field lithographic methods by using near-field focusing effects in mesoscale structures. The resolution is smaller than /5 (Optics Letters, 32, 71-73 (2007), the aspect ratio of focusing profiles is high (App. Phys. Lett. 88, 10110 (2006); Opt. Lett. 34, 1867-1869 (2009)). We can make photonic bandgap patterns with any designed defects by a simple photolithographic process (Nanotechnology 17, 1333 (2006)). This method can also be applied for making 3D subwavelength structures (Optical Express 15, 677 (2007)).
(2) Nano-Photonic Devices： (a) Nano-Biosensors： We first confirmed the propagation of gap plasmon in nanoslits using the combinational studies of near-field microscopy and FDTD method. This work was introduced by Photonics Spectra. The gap plasmon is resonant in the nanoslit cavity. It results in extraordinary transmissions of TM polarized light. We studied the sensing applications of surface plasmon mode and gap plasmon mode in periodic gold nanoslits (J. Biomedical Optics, 12(4), 044023 (2007)). The biosensor using gap plasmon resonance has a sensitivity one order of magnitude higher than that of the surface plasmon resonance (Biosensor and Bioelectronics 24, 210 (2008)). The gap plasmon-based sensors are especially useful for high-throughput detections and biochip-based devices. We successfully demonstrated microarray detections for real-time measurements of antigen-antibody and DNA-DNA interactions (Opt. Express 17, 23104 (2009); Small 6, 1900 (2010); Plasmonics (2011)). In addition to the gap plasmon sensor, we also developed nano-fiber based sensors (J. Biomedical Optics, 2006, 11, 014032). We successfully applied the nano-fiber to measure the refractive index in cytoplasm of living cells (Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 173110 (2008)) and pH values (Opt. Lett., 35, 944 (2010)). (b) Green Energy Devices： We improved the efficiencies of light emitting devices/solar cells by using nanostructures. For conventional OLEDs, twice brightness enhancement was achieved by using the surface plasmon effects of gold nanowire arrays (Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 013303 (2008)).The metallic nanostructures can also be used as transparent electrodes (Organ. Electron.12, 2011) for OLEDs and organic solar cells. Recently, we developed a more efficient and cost-effective way to enhance the light extraction by using antireflection effect of transparent nanopillars (Opt. Express, 19. A295 (2011), selected paper 1). We also developed some optical novel components by using extraordinary optical properties of nanostructures, such as giant birefringence in metallic nanoslit which can be used as ultra-thin wavelength plates (Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 013105 (2009)).
Honors and Awards： Doctoral Thesis Award, Optical Society of Taiwan Distinguished Postdoctoral Scholars, Academia Sinica Publications selected as 2007, 2008, 2012 and 2013 Academia Sinica Significant Researches Investigator Award, 2015, Academia Sinica
Students (main advisor) Wei-Lun Cheng, 2005 Optics and Photonics in Taiwan, Student Paper Award Kuang-Li Lee, 2007 Optics and Photonics in Taiwan, Student Best Post Award Shen-Yu Hsu, 2008 SID International Conference, Student Travel Grant (US$500) Chia-Wei Lee, 2008 International Conference on Laser Applications in Life Sciences (LAIS), Student Paper Award En-Hong Lin, 2009 Optics and Photonics in Taiwan, Student Paper Award Su-Hann Wu, 2009 Optics and Photonics in Taiwan, Student Paper Award Yu-Hsuan Ho, 2011 SID International Conference, Student Travel Grant (US$500) Su-Hann Wu, 2011 Optics and Photonics in Taiwan, Student Paper Award Yu-Hsuan Ho, 2013 SID International Conference, Student Travel Grant (US$500) Yu-Hsuan Ho, 2013 International Display Manufacturing Conference, Distinguished Paper Award. Kuang-Li Lee, Best Oral Presentation Award, 2016 BEST conference & International Symposium on Biotechnology and Bioengineering. Cheng-Chuan Chen, 2017, Poster Award, International conferences of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP8)
News： 1. Our research, “Giant Birefringence Induced by Plasmonic Nanoslit Arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 013105 (2009), was selected and reported in the Laser Focus World as one of the Accelerated Ingenuity in 2009. 2. Our paper, "Size-Dependent Endocytosis of Gold Nanoparticles Studied by Three-Dimensional Mapping of Plasmonic Scattering Images" 2010, 8：33, J. Nanobiotechnology. (2010) was is a high access paper in Journal of Nanobiotechnology (Total accesses to this article since publication： 2197) 3. Our paper, ”Sensitive Label-Free Biosensors by Using Gap Plasmons in Gold Nanoslits”, Biosensors and Bioelectronics 24, 210-215 (2008), was selected in the book “Chemical Sensors： Fundamental of Sensing Materials (2010)” with 2 pages introduction. 4. The research, “Intensity sensitivity of gold nanostructures and its application for high-throughput biosensing,” Optics Express, 17 Issue 25, pp.23104-23113 (2009), was selected as significant research of Academia Sinica in 2010. 5. The paper, ”Extraction enhancement in organic light emitting devices by using metallic nanowire arrays”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 013303 (2008), was a top 20 download paper in Jan. issue (2008) of Appl. Phys. Lett. and was reported by the website (IOP), nanotechweb.org. 6. The research, ”Two-Dimensional Refractive Index Profiling by Using Differential Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061123 (2007), was introduced by the optical magazine, Photonics Spectra in 2010 7. The research, “Fabrication of a close-packed hemispherical submicron lens array and its application in photolithography”, Optical Express, Vol. 15, Issue 11, pp. 6774-6783, (2007), was selected in significant researches of Academia Sinica (2007). 8. The paper, ”Sensitive Biosensor Array by Using Surface Plasmon Resonance on Metallic NanoSlits”, J. Biomedical Optics, 12(4), 044023 (2007), was most a frequently downloaded paper in digital library and selected as top notch research in December, 2007. 9. The paper, “Characterization and applications of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers” PNAS 104： 727-732 (2007), (collaborated with W. S. Fann in IAMS, academia sinica) was reported by news of Anal. Chem., 2007, 79, 1768. 10. Many published papers were also selected by Virtual Journals such as Nanoscale Sciences and Technology and Biological Physics Research.
Recent Publications (2012-2017)
1. Kuang-Li Lee, Po-Cheng Tsai, Meng-Lin You, Ming-Yang Pan, Xu Shi, Kosei Ueno, Hiroaki Misawa, Pei-Kuen Wei*, 2017, “Enhancing Surface Sensitivity of Nanostructure-Based Aluminum”, ACS omeaga, 2, 7461-7470. (SCI) 2. Kuang-Li Lee, Hsuan-Yeh Hsu, Meng-Lin You, Chia-Chun Chang, Ming-Yang Pan, Xu Shi, Kosei Ueno, Hiroaki Misawa & Pei-Kuen Wei*, “Highly Sensitive Aluminum-Based Biosensors using Tailorable Fano Resonances in Capped Nanostructures”, Scientific Reports 7, Article number： 44104 (2017) 3. Ming-Yang Pan, Kuang-Li Lee, Likarn Wang, Pei-Kuen Wei*, “Chip-based digital surface plasmon resonance sensing platform for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection”, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 91, May 2017, Pages 580-587 4. En-Hung Lin, Wan-Shao Tsai, Kuang-Li Lee, Ming-Chang M. Lee and Pei-Kuen Wei*, "Enhancing angular sensitivity of plasmonic nanostructures using mode transition in hexagonal gold nanohole arrays." Sensors and Actuators B： Chemical 241 (2017)： 800-805. 5. Tzyy-Jiann Wang, Hsi-Yang Hsu, Hsuan-Wei Chang, Hai-Pang Chiang, Yi-Ru Li, and Pei-Kuen Wei, 2017, “Electrostatic-field-tunable ferroelectric template for photoreduction of silver nanostructures applied in Raman scattering enhancement”, OPTICAL MATERIALS EXPRESS, Vol. 7, Issue 8, 2838-2846. 6. Tsung-Yeh Wu, Hsuan-Yeh Hsu, Kuang-Li Lee, Sen-Yeu Yang, Pei-Kuen Wei*, “Development of radio-frequency heating-assisted nanoimprint with PETG solution for nanostructure-based biosensors”, AIP Advances 7 No. 4, 045311 (2017) 7. Kuang-Li Lee, Tsung-Yeh Wu, Hsuan-Yeh Hsu, Sen-Yeu Yang, Pei-Kuen Wei*, “Low-Cost and Rapid Fabrication of Metallic Nanostructures for Sensitive Biosensors Using Hot-Embossing and Dielectric-Heating Nanoimprint Methods”, Sensors 17, 1548 (2017) 8. Shu-Cheng Lo, En-Hung Lin, Pei-Kuen Wei and Wan-Shao Tsai, “Compact Imaging Spectroscopic System for Biomolecular Detections on Plasmonic Chips”, Analyst, 2016, 141, 6126 - 6132 9. Kuang-Li Lee, Chia-Chun Chang, Meng-Lin You, Ming-Yang Pan, Pei-Kuen Wei*” Enhancing the Surface Sensitivity of Metallic Nanostructures Using Oblique-Angle-Induced Fano Resonances”, Scientific Reports 6, 33126 (2016) 10. Yi-Hsin Tai, Ming-Yang Pan, En-Hung Lin, Ding-Wei Huang and Pei-Kuen Wei*“Quality Detection of Alcoholic Beverages Using Optical Fiber Tips”, IEEE Sensors, 16, 5626-5631 (2016) 11. Yang, TH; Harn, YW ; Pan, MY; Huang, LD; Chen, MC; Li, BY ; Liu, PH; Chen, PY; Lin, CC; Wei, PK; Chen, LJ; Wu, JM “Ultrahigh density plasmonic hot spots with ultrahigh electromagnetic field for improved photocatalytic activities”, Applied Catalytic B-Environmental, 181, 612-624 (2016) 12. Sheng-Hann Wang, Chia-Wei Lee, Fan-Gang Tseng, Kuo-Kan Liang and Pei-Kuen Wei,*“Evolution of Gold Nanoparticle Clusters in Living Cells Studied by Sectional Dark-Field Optical Microscopy and Chromatic Analysis”, J. Biophotonics 9, No. 7, 738-749 (2016) 13. Wei-Chiao Huang, Pierre-Alain Burnouf, Yu-Cheng Su, Bing-Mae Chen, Kuo-Hsiang Chuang, Chia-Wei Lee, Pei-Kuen Wei, Tian-Lu Cheng, and Steve R. Roffler, ”Engineering Chimeric Receptors To Investigate the Size- and Rigidity-Dependent Interaction of PEGylated Nanoparticles with Cells”, ACS Nano (2016) 26;10(1)：648-62. 14. Kuang-Li Lee, Meng-Lin You, Chia-Hsin Tsai, En-Hung Lin, Shu-Yi Hsieh, Ming-Hsun Ho, Ju-Chun Hsu, Pei-Kuen Wei*, ”Nanoplasmonic biochips for rapid label-free detection of imidacloprid pesticides with a smartphone” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 75, 88-95 (2016) 15. Kuang-Li Lee, Meng-Lin You, Cheng-Lin Tsai, Chia-Yu Hung, Shu-Yi Hsieh and Pei-Kuen Wei*, “Visualization of biosensors using enhanced surface plasmon resonances in capped silver nanostructures”, Analyst 2016,141, 974-980 16. Yi-Hsin Tai, Dao-Ming Chang, Ming-Yang Pan, Ding-Wei Huang and Pei-Kuen Wei*, “Sensitive Detection of Small Particles in Fluids Using Optical Fiber Tip with Dielectrophoresis” Sensors 2016, 16(3), 303 17. Sheng-Hann Wang, Chia-Wei Lee, Kun-Ching Shen, Fan-Gang Tseng, and Pei-Kuen Wei,* “Dose Dependent Distribution and Aggregation of Gold Nanoparticles within Human Lung Adeno-carcinoma Cells” RSC Advances, 2015, 5, 98309 - 98317 18. Ming-Yang Pan, Kuang-Li Lee, T Wan-Shao Tsai, Likarn Wang, Pei-Kuen Wei*, “Determination of the effective index and thickness of biomolecular layer by Fano resonances in gold nanogrid array”, Optics Express 23(17) 21596-21606 (2015)-21606 (2015) 19. Yu-Hsuan Ho, Wen-Sheng Huang, Hao-Chun Chang, Pei-Kuen Wei, Horn-Jiunn Sheen and Wei-Cheng Tian,” Ultraviolet-enhanced room-temperature gas sensing by using floccule-like zinc oxide nanostructures”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106,183103 (2015) 20. Ching-Fu Chen, Chen-Ta Ku, Yi-Hsin Tai, Pei-Kuen Wei, Heh-Nan Lin, and Chen-Bin Huang,” Creating Optical Near-Field Orbital Angular Momentum in a Gold Metasurface”, Nano Lett., 15, 2746-2750 (2015) 21. Mansoureh Z. Mousavi, Huai-Yi Chen, Kuang-Li Lee, Heng Lin, Hsi-Hsien Chen, Yuh-Feng Lin, Chung-Shun Wong, Hsiao Fen Li, Pei-Kuen Wei and Ji-Yen Cheng , “Urinary micro-RNA biomarker detection using capped gold nanoslit SPR in a microfluidic chip”, Analyst, 2015,140, 4097-4104 22. Mansoureh Z. Mousavi , Huai-Yi Chen, Hsien-San Hou, Chou-Yuan-Yuan Chang, Steve Roffler , Pei-Kuen Wei and Ji-Yen Cheng, ”Label-Free Detection of Rare Cell in Human Blood Using Gold Nano Slit Surface Plasmon Resonance”, Biosensors 2015, 5(1), 98-117 23. K. L. Lee, J. B. Huang, J. W. Chang, S. H. Wu, P. K. Wei*, "Ultrasensitive Biosensors Using Enhanced Fano Resonances in Capped Gold Nanoslit Arrays", Sci. Rep. 2015, 5, 8547. 24. Wei-Feng Xu, Ming-Yang Pan, Po-Han Fu, Shih-Wei Li, Ding-Wei Huang and Pei-Kuen Wei*, “Efficiency enhancement of top-illuminated ITO-free organic solar cells using plasmonic-assisted nanostructured reflective electrodes”, J. Mater. Chem. C, 3, 9131-9136 (2015). 25. Wei-Feng Xu, Ming-Chin Tsai,Po-Han Fu,Tzu-Yen Huang, Ming-Yang Pan, Shan-Jung Yang, Ding-Wei Huang, and Pei-Kuen Wei*, ”Efficiency Enhancement of Organic Solar Cells Using Poly-Peroxotitanic Acid Coated Silver Nanowires as Transparent Electrode”Rsc Advances, 5 , 18990-18996 (2015) 26. Kai-Yu Peng, Yu-Hsuan Ho, Da-Hua Wei, Yueh-Chung Yu, Yeong-Der Yao, Wei-Cheng Tian, and Pei-Kuen Wei*, “Efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting devices by using honeycomb metallic electrodes and two-dimensional photonic crystal arrays”, Organic Electronics, 15, 3043–3051 (2014). 27. Ming-Yang Pan, En-Hong Lin, Likarn Wang, Pei-Kuen Wei*,” pectral and mode properties of surface plasmon polariton waveguides studied by near-field excitation and leakage-mode radiation measurement”, Nanoscale Research Letters 2014, 9：430 28. En-Hung Lin, Wan-Shao Tsai, Kuang-Li Lee, Ming-Chang M. Lee, Pei-Kuen Wei*, Enhancing detection sensitivity of metallic nanostructures by resonant coupling mode and spectral integration analysis" Optics Express. 08/2014; 22(16). DOI： 10.1364/OE.22.019621 29. Sheng-Hann Wang, Chia-Wei Lee, Ming-Yang Pan, Shu-Yi Hsieh, Fan-Gang Tseng, Pei-Kuen Wei*” Chromatogram Analysis on Revealing Aggregated Number and Location of Gold Nanoparticles Within Living Cells”, Plasmonics, (2014) DOI10.1007/s11468-014-9874-1. 30. Shu-Han Wu, Kuang-Li Lee, Ruei-Hung Weng, Zhao-Xian Zheng, Arthur Chiou, and Pei-Kuen Wei,* " Dynamic Monitoring of Mechano-Sensing of Cells by Gold Nanoslit Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor" PLoS one, 9, e89522 (2014) 31. Shu-Han Wu, David Núnez, Shih-Yang Hu, María Pilar Domingo, Yi-Chun Chen, Pei-Kuen Wei, Julián Pardo, Eva M Gálvezc, Arthur Chiou, "The effect of acidic pH on the inhibitory efficacy of peptides against the interaction ICAM-1/LFA-1 studied by surface plasmon resonance (SPR)", Biosensors and Bioelectronics 56 (2014) 159–166 32. Yu-Hsuan Ho, Hsun Liang, Shun-Wei Liu, Wei-Cheng Tian, Fang-Chung Chen and Pei-Kuen Wei*, "Efficiency improvement of organic bifunctional devices by applying omnidirectional antireflection nanopillars", RSC Adv., 4,9588–9593 (2014) 33. Ming-Yang Pan, En-Hong Lin, Likarn Wang and Pei-Kuen Wei*, "Enhancing surface plasmon polariton propagation by two-layer dielectric-loaded waveguides on silver surface", Appl. Phys. A, 115, 93-98 (2014) 34. En-Hung Lin, Ming-Yang Pan, Ming-Chang Lee, Pei-Kuen Wei*, "Enhancing DNA binding rate using optical trapping of high-density gold nanodisks", AIP Advances, 4, 037122 (2014) 35. Yu-Hsuan Ho, Kuan-Han Ting, Kuan-Yu Chen, Shun-Wei Liu, Wei-Cheng Tian, and Pei-Kuen Wei*, "Omnidirectional antireflection polymer films nanoimprinted by density-graded nanoporous silicon and image improvement in display panel," Opt. Express 21, 29827-29835 (2013) 36. Wan-Shao Tsai, Kuang-Li Lee, Ming-Yang Pan, and Pei-Kuen Wei*, "Increased detection sensitivity of surface plasmon sensors using oblique induced resonant coupling," Opt. Lett. 38, 4962-4965 (2013) 37. Shu-Han Wu, Shu-Yi Hsieh, Kuang-Li Lee, Ruei-Hung Weng, Arthur Chiou and Pei-Kuen Wei*, "Cell viability monitoring using Fano resonance in gold nanoslit array", Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 133702 (2013). 38. Yung-Ting Chang, Shun-Wei Liu, Chih-Hsien Yuan, Yu-Hsuan Ho, Kuan-Yu Chen, Yi-Ting Lee, Min-Fei Wu, Chih-Chien Lee, Pei-Kuen Wei, Chin-Ti Chen and Chih-I Wu, "Comparison of light out-coupling enhancements in single-layer bluephosphorescent organic light emitting diodes using small-molecule or polymer hosts", J. Appl. Phys. 114, 173106 (2013) 39. Wei-Feng Xua, Chun-Chieh Chi, Ding-Wei Hung, Pei-Kuen Wei*, "Transparent electrode for organic solar cells using multilayer structures with nanoporous silver film", Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 118, 81–89 (2013). 40. Yu-Hsuan Ho, Kuan-Yu Chen, Kai-Yu Peng, Ming-Chih Tsai, Wei-Cheng Tian, and Pei-Kuen Wei*, "Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting diode using metallic nanomesh electrodes and microlens array", Optics Express, 21, Issue 7, pp. 8535-8543 (2013) 41. Shu-Han Wu, Kuang-Li Lee, Arthur Chiou, Xuanhong Cheng,* and Pei-Kuen Wei,* "Optofluidic Platform for Real-time Monitoring of Live Cell Secretory Activities Using Fano Resonance in Gold Nanoslits", Small. 9, Issue 20, 3532–3540 (2013) 42. Kuang-Li Lee, Jui-Ting Tsai, Min-Jian Chih, Yeong-Der Yao, and Pei-Kuen Wei*, "High-Throughput Label-Free Detection Using Gold Nanoslit Array with 2D Spectral Images and Spectral Integration Methods", Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE, 19, 3, MAY/JUNE 4800407 (2013) 43. Mansoureh Z. Mousavi, Huai-Yi Chena, Shu-Han Wua, Shih-Wei Peng, Kuang-Li Lee, Pei-Kuen Wei and Ji-Yen Cheng*, "Magnetic nanoparticle-enhanced SPR on gold nanoslits for ultra-sensitive, label-free detection of nucleic acid biomarkers", Analyst. 2013 Apr 2;138(9)：2740-8. 44. Wan-Shao Tsai, San-Yu Ting, and Pei-Kuen Wei*," Refractive index profiling of an optical waveguide from the determination of the effective index with measured differential fields", Opt. Express, Vol. 20, Issue 24, pp. 26766-26777 (2012) 45. *Yu-Hsuan Ho, Yung-Ting Chang, Shun-Wei Liu, Hiao-Han Lai, Chih-Wei Chu, Chih-I Wu, Wei-Cheng Tian, and Pei-Kuen Wei*, "Optimization of Polymer Light Emitting Devices Using TiOx Electron Transport Layers and Prism Sheets", Organic Electronics. 13 (2012) 2667–2670. 46. Szu-Chi Yang, Hung-Pin Chen, Hui-Hsin Hsiao, Pei-Kuen Wei, Hung-Chun Chang, and Chi-Kuang Sun, "Near-field dynamic study of the nanoacoustic effect on the extraordinary transmission in gold nanogratings", Optics Express Vol. 20, Iss. 15, pp. 16186–16194 (2012). 47. Kuang-Li Lee, Min-Jian Chih, Xu Shi, Kosei Ueno, Hiroaki Misawa, and Pei-Kuen Wei*,"Improving Surface Plasmon Detection in Gold Nanostructures Using a Multi-Polarization Spectral Integration Method", Adv. Mater.. 24, OP253-OP259 (2012) 48. Kuang-Li Lee, Pei-Wen Chen, Shu-Han Wu, Jhih-Bin Huang, Sen-Yeu Yang, Pei-Kuen Wei*, "Enhancing Surface Plasmon Detection Using Template-Stripped Gold Nanoslit Arrays on Plastic Films", ACS Nano , 2012, 6 (4), pp 2931–2939 49. Rakesh Singh Moirangthem, Mohammad Tariq Yaseen, Pei-Kuen Wei, Ji-Yen Cheng, and Yia-Chung Chang, "Enhanced localized plasmonic detections using partially-embedded gold nanoparticles and ellipsometric measurements", Biomedical Optics Express, Vol. 3, Issue 5, pp. 899-910 (2012) 50. Y. H. Ho, D. W. Huang, Y. T. Chang, Y. H. Yeh, C. W. Chu, W. C. Tian, C. T. Chen, and P. K. Wei*,“Improve efficiency of white organic light-emitting diodes by using nanosphere arrays in color conversion layers,“ Opt. Express 20, 3005-3014 (2012)